Addressing the Toughest Roadblocks in Diagnosis and Therapy Using Exosomes
By Vivek Ghate, Ph.D., Pinal Chaudhari, M.Pharm., Amala Maxwell, M.Pharm., Shaila Lewis, Ph.D., Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Suman Pahal, Ph.D., Praveen K. Vemula, Ph.D., Institute for Stem Cell Science and Regenerative Medicine
Each of us has utilized courier services to transport goods and documents from one place to another, or to have items delivered directly home. Similarly, within our bodies, exosomes behave as an essential courier service to accomplish specific cell-to-cell communications, transferring genetic materials, precursors in disease, and functional proteins. Exosomes have evolved beyond cell-to-cell transport to aid in the rapid diagnosis of pathological conditions, to deliver drugs loaded into them precisely, and to harness the plethora of potential in individualized medicines. The unique expression and aptitude to provide stability to their content make exosomes ideal biomarkers for diverse diseases such as cancer, metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and a possible diagnostic and therapeutic modality in viral pandemics such as the COVID-19.